Monday, 21 February 2011

The Grotesque

"The Grotesque is the estranged world. But is our world which has to be transformed. Suddenness and surprise are essential elements of the grotesque. Its representations in the plastic arts... do not refer to a state of repose but to an action, a "pregnant moment", or at least — in the case of Kafka — a situation that is filled with ominous tension...

We are strongly affected and terrified because it is our world which ceases to be reliable, and we feel that we would be unable to live in this changed world. The grotesque instills fear of life rather than death.  The various forms of the grotesque are the most obvious and pronounced contradictions of any kind of rationalism and any systematic use of thought."

- Wolfgang Kayser, The Grotesque in Art and Literature, 185

"The most consistently distinguished characteristic of the grotesque has been the... mixture of the heterogeneous, or conflation of disparates."

- Philip Thomson, The Grotesque, 11 

A powerful esthetic category involving disruption and distortion of hierarchical or canonical assumptions. The notion combines ugliness and ornament, the bizarre and the ridiculous, the excessive and the unreal. The term derives from the Italian term for grottos (grotteschi), i.e., the ruins in which statuettes of distorted figures were found in the XV and XVI centuries. The Romantic era, with its interest in the dispossessed, in all those who before the age of Revolution had been nameless and invisible, made the grotesque its indispensable adjunct. Victor Hugo, for whom the grotesque was indispensable opposite the sublime, aptly indulged his penchant for antithesis when he claimes that the grotesque is "the richest source nature can offer art." M. Bahktin placed the grotesque at the heart of the carnivalesque spirit.

With its insistence on ironic reversals, on fluent and fertile opposites, the grotesque also resembles the topos of The World Upside-Down, that topsy-turvy universe where things are no longer in their place, where order is disrupted, where hierarchies tumble, and the Fool is king. Both the Grotesque and The World Upside-Down possess a darkly comic portent, that the fantastic uncovers and explores; both serve the key function of revealing the constructed nature of rationality, of the mandate that everything be in its place. The surface relationships by which daily life is governed are anything but ordained and stable; indeed, they can be understood as absolute only by dint of a sustained illusion.

Tuesday, 15 February 2011

Mutable Program

In 1853 one London clergyman argued that the City of London had too many Churches, and that 29 churches should be demolished. Seven years later, in 1860, the Union of Benefices Act was passed, allowing the reorganisation of benefices or church livings and parishes - resulting in the reduced number of ten churches being demolished in order to make way for the City’s growing trade infrastructure.

Some 150 years later, in 1992, the Templeman report again concluded that the organisation of religious life in the Capital should be drastically reconsidered. All Churches have reported reduced congregations consistently over the past three decades. As result, many have resorted to a combination of private enterprise, or special cases of ‘religious specialisation’, whereby a specific denomination or demographic is catered to. As result, the number of churches in the City of London is to be reduced to only twelve, leaving twenty seven redundant.

Before the dissolution of the monastery in 1543 under the protestant reformation, which saw the destruction of more than half of its built structure, the church of Great St Barts acted as a centre for multiple programmatic functions: A school, livestock market, blacksmiths, private residence, hospital and jousting hall were all held within the church itself, while still functioning as a holy building.

Being one such church that will be decommissioned as a result of the Templeman report, Great St Barts will become the centre of a medical wing with hybrid programmes: Allowing for rehabilitation of IAD patients within an environment of variable community program.

Site: A Vision for the Virtual

In 1123, a courtier of King Henry I named Rahere fell ill whilst on religious pilgrimage in Rome. During his fever, Rahere had a vision of St Bartholomew, the patron of tanners and believed to hold healing powers, who instructed him that in the event that he recovered, he should build a hospital.

This virtual encounter led to the founding of the churches of St Bartholomew-the-Great and St Bartholomew-the-Less, as well as St Bartholomew Hospital. The former now remains the oldest church in the London, the latter the oldest church in England, both having existed on the same site for almost 900 years, surviving both the Great Fire of London and the Blitz.

By 1872, St Bartholomew’s contained 676 beds. About 6,000 in-patients were admitted every year, besides 101,000 out-patients. While the hospital now operates with only half these beds, and its Accident & Emergency facility was closed in 1995, it remains one of the most important centres of medical research in Europe, with a new £200m Cancer Research Centre having opened in 2009.

Inorganic growth: Calcification

Cancellous bone is characterised by a honeycomb arrangement, comprising a network of trabeculae (rod-shaped tissue). These structures provide support and strength to the bone. The spaces within this tissue contain bone marrow (not seen), a blood forming substance.

The surface of the cementless ESKA Endoprostheses is a three-dimensional grid structure that has been adapted to the structure of the cancellous bone and affords vascularisation of the bone. The dimensions – structural height and web thickness – of this interconnecting surface are part of the technical specifications and are therefore reproducable. The structure and the implant core are manufactured in a one-piece homogeneous casting process. Primary stability is achieved by press-fit, long-term stability is achieved by bony integration. This three-dimensional web structure has been successfully applied for more than 25 years.

A three-dimensional synchrotron computed-tomography image of a 4-millimeter-cube of trabecular bone from the vertebra interior of a 30-year-old female shows bone of normal density and architecture. A significant number of trabeculae and platelike structures are aligned in the load-bearing direction.

Inorganic matter

Emergence: Organic precedents

Biology Professor Emeritus John Bonner's microscope films show the curiously collective nature of slime molds. A plasmodial slime mould involves numerous individual cells attached to each other, forming one large membrane. This "supercell" (a syncytium) is essentially a bag of cytoplasm containing thousands of individual nuclei. By contrast, cellular slime moulds spend most of their lives as individual unicellular protists, but when a chemical signal is secreted, they assemble into a cluster that acts as one organism.

Engineers learn from slime moulds

The way fungus-like slime moulds grow could help engineers design wireless communication networks. Scientists drew this conclusion after observing a slime mould as it grew into a network that was almost identical to the Tokyo rail system. The single amoeboid cells of slime moulds fuse and spread into a network as they feed and grow...

Slime Molds Are Earth’s Smallest, Oldest Farmers

Work in Progress Show: Test Model

Materialism & Ritual

The ritualistic throwing of coins into so-called 'wishing wells' has pagan animistic origins rooted in material vitalism. Celtic and Germanic peoples believed that water was sacred, having been placed there by, and containing deities.

When crossing rivers, or following battles on nearby plains, coins and armour would be thrown into the water as offerings to such virtual beings which resided within the physical landscape. Water was also seen to have healing powers and therefore wells became popular with many people drinking, bathing or just simply wishing over it. People believe that the guardians or dwellers of the well would grant them their wish if they paid a price. After uttering the wish, one would generally drop coins in the well. That wish would then be granted by the guardian or dweller, based upon how the coin would land at the bottom of the well.

The material world was thus brought into contact with the virtual through ritual.

Perhaps unbeknown to the protagonists of the ritual, the copper and silver of which coins were made also had biocidal properties which kept the water from going sour (bacteria produces various acidic compounds which affect the taste, notably Hydrogen sulfide). As well as expressing the merging of a virtual and actual world, the ritual also serves as an example of material vitalism; with inorganic matter dramatically altering both its immediate environment and those who rely upon it.

Degradation as design

Hussein Chalayan's, 'The Tangent Flows'.

In his graduate project, “The Tangent Flows”, Hussein Chalayan explored death and degradation as themes of design.

Chalayan buried his garments in advance of his final show, allowing a chaotic design process to take place. He makes clothes metamorphose and changes conventional attitudes towards formal beauty or structure

Crystalline Architecture

"There's no order outside the order of the material."
-Robert Smithson, 
Fragments of a Conversation, 1969

Roger Hiorns' work, Seizure, sees a re-appropriation of architectural space; taking a condemned building in South London, and filling it with concentrated Copper Sulphate solution. The shell of the building becomes host to a new material organism, creating new architectural atmospheres while largely maintaining the orginal volume.

Treatment focuses

As Internet Addiction Disorder (IAD) is still not formally recognised in the DSM-V, (although its inclusion is to be considered for the next edition in 2013), extensive empirical research into the compulsion is still limited, and as result its treatment is as yet unformalised and unstructured. Across the countries that have established programmes to deal with the growing problem, the therapy focuses vary from involvement in household chores, group therapy and regaining social interaction, to corporal punishment.

IAD Treatment: World programmes

Related Articles:

Building as reflexive system

The fabric of the church and surrounding buildings become part of a reflexive system centered around 'The Internet of Things', wherein real-time environmental data effects material growth and with it the patients perception of dynamic ecological systems.